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When there are two or more people together running or working together to do a job in order to achieve a particular goal, it is basically an organization. Because of the merger or cooperation of the two or more people to achieve a common goal this is what is referred to as an organization. (Hazil and Panglaykim, 1975, Sutarto 1993).
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According to Polak (1976) and Soekanto (1986) the so-called organization is a group that deliberately formed or created structures, which govern the relationships of a number of people to achieve certain goals. What is meant by structure is an arrangement of patterns between rather stable internal relationships. This structure consists of: (1) a set of statuses or positions of its members; (2) roles related to those statuses; and (3) cultural elements such as values, norms, and models that maintain, justify, and glorify structures.
The understanding of the organization according to Sutarto (1993) based on his study of a number of definitions submitted by experts can be grouped into 3 kinds, namely:
- As a group of people;
- As a process of division of labor;
- As a system of cooperation, a relationship system or a social system.
Sutarto with reference to the opinion of The Liang Gie suggests that the organization is not a group of people and not just a division of work, but rather as a system of cooperation, a relationship system, a social system, so that the organization can be defined as “a system of mutual influence between people in a group that cooperates to achieve a particular goal”.
While what is meant by Social Organization is a social gathering formed by the community, both legal and non-legal, which serves as a means of community participation in the development of nations and countries. As beings who have always lived together, humans form social organizations to achieve certain goals that they cannot achieve on their own.
There are two terms used, namely “social institution” and “community institution”. Anthropologist sing “social intitution” (emphasis of the value system) Sociologist termed societal institutions or social institutions (emphasizing the system of norms that have forms and abstracts)
Initially social institutions were formed from norms that were considered important in societal life. The establishment of social institutions starts with individuals who need each other, then there are rules called so-called societal norms. Social institutions are often also said to be as social Pranata. Social institutions are ordinances that have been created to regulate human relationships in a container called the Association. The association has a clear set of rules, rules, members and objectives, so it is concrete.
Characteristics of Social Organizations
- Formalities, pointing to the written formulation of rules, statutes, procedures, policies, objectives, strategies, and more
- Hierarchical, pointing to a pyramid-shaped pattern of power and authority.
- Its size and complexity, has many members so that social relationships between members are indirect (impersonal)
- The formulation of operational boundaries (organizations) is clear
- Have a clear identity.
- Formal membership, status and role.
According to Berelson and Steiner(1964:55) an organization has the following characteristics:
- Formalities, are characteristic of social organizations that point to the written formulation of regulations, statutes, procedures, policies, objectives, strategies, and so on.
- Hierarkhi, is a characteristic of the organization that refers to a pyramid-shaped pattern of power and authority, meaning there are certain people who have a higher position and power and authority than ordinary members of the organization.
- Large and Complex, in this case in general social organizations have many members so that social relations between members are indirect (impersonal), these symptoms are usually known as “bureaucratic” symptoms.
- Duration, refers to the existence of an organization longer than the membership of people in that organization.
There are also states that social organizations, have several other traits related to the existence of that organization. Among them are:
- The formulation of the operational boundaries (organization) is clear. As discussed above, the organization will prioritize the achievement of goals based on mutually agreed decisions. In this case, an organization’s operational activities are limited by binding provisions based on common interests, while fulfilling the aspirations of its members.
- Have a clear identity. The organization will be quickly recognized by the surrounding community if it has a clear identity. Identity relates to information about the organization, the purpose of the establishment of the organization, or where it stands, and so on.
- Formal membership, status and role. Each member has their own participation and duties in accordance with the mutually agreed limits.
So, from some of the organizational features that have been put forward we will easily distinguish which can be said of the organization and which cannot be said as an organization.
Official Formal Organization
A formal / official organization is an organization formed by a group of people/societies that have a well-formulated structure, which explains the relationships of its authority, power, accountability and responsibilities, and has the power of law. The existing structure also explains how the channels form through what communication takes place. It then shows the specified tasks for each of its members.
Membership in informal organizations can be achieved both consciously and unconsciously, and it is often difficult to determine the time a person becomes a member of that organization. The nature of the relationship between members and even the objectives of the organization in question is not specified.