Alzheimer’s disease is a form of senility due to brain degeneration that can interfere with a person’s ability to think, memory, and language function. People with Alzheimer’s, will lose memory gradually, experience disorientation and personality changes. This makes it difficult for patients to carry out daily activities.
The name Alzheimer’s disease is derived from the name of Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German doctor who first discovered the disease in 1906. Dr. Alzheimer’s noticed changes in brain tissue in women who died from mental disorders that had never been encountered before. In the brain tissue is found layers or plaques and abnormal nerve fibers.
Alzheimer’s disease is difficult to detect because many think parents who originally forgot, is something that is common because of age. Though it may be early signs that a person has Alzheimer’s disease.
Publications about Alzheimer’s disease remain low and many people did not know about the disease until it was published publicly by former 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan in his letter dated November 5, 1994. Ronald Reagan was an Alzheimer’s disease. After being diagnosed with the disease until his death, Reagan was unable to recognize his own wife, Nancy.
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Alzheimer’s can be known from some of the following diagnoses:
-Acquired impaired cognition function deficit > 2
– No disturbance of the level of consciousness
No systematic abnormalities or other brain diseases
-ADL is disrupted and behavior patterns change
-In the EEG image gives a normal picture or non-change
specifics such as increased slow wave activity
-On the CT scan, a cerebeb atropu is obtained.
Alzheimer’s disease is very difficult to diagnose based only on clinical symptoms without confirmed other examinations such as neuropathology, neuropsychologist, MRI, SPECT, PET. Until now the exact cause is not known, but genetic factors are very decisive (family history), while environmental factors are only the originators of genetic expression.
Cause Alzheimer ‘s
Alzheimer’s disease is a genetic disease, but the role of environmental factors (non-genetics) is also involved, where environmental factors are only the originators of genetic factors.
There are various factors that cause the emergence of Alzheimer’s, such as
Brain cell death, genetic disorders (such as neurotransmitters, deficits in filament cell formation, heriditer presdiment), and external conditions (such as metal intoxication, impaired immune function, viral infections, air/industrial pollution, head trauma experienced by “boxers”). For example, many foods or drinks contain heavy metals.
Generally, people with Alzheimer’s are over the age of 60 years. But do not rule out the possibility of sufferers can be from under the age of 60 years. Alzheimer’s disease is not contagious but can be inherited. If a parent has a history of Alzheimer’s, the risk of decreasing in their children is considerable.
People who are at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease are people with hypertension aged 40 years and over, diabetes or diabetes, lack of exercise, high cholesterol levels, and hereditary factors who have a family of people with this disease in their 50s.
Symptoms of Alzheimer’s
Alzheimer’s can be classified into 3 symptoms. Mild symptoms such as more often confused and forget about newly learned information (e.g., forgetting to put down a car key, forgetting a phone number or a dose of commonly eaten medicine), Getting lost in the surrounding area that he knows well, has problems in carrying out routine tasks (example: not knowing to buy goods to the store), experiencing changes in personality and judgment.
For intermediate symptoms, sufferers have difficulty in doing daily living activities (e.g.: eating, bathing, forgetting to mix sugar in drinks, salt in cooking), anxious, suspicious, experiencing sleep disturbances, difficulty recognizing family and friends
As for serious or acute symptoms, sufferers have difficulty or loss of the ability to speak, can not take care of themselves (such as: not wanting to eat which results in weight loss, unable to control urination or bowel movements), mistaken with the circumstances around the house and very dependent on caregivers.
To be able to assess a disease including Alzheimer’s disease, then all symptoms of this disease must be met in the disease. If it is just similar or there is little similarity then it can not be said that the disease is really Alzheimer’s disease.
In Alzheimer’s disease, forgetting is completely related to damage to the brain’s nervoussystem. While in amnesia and delirium,what occurs is more caused by psychologicalfactors, such as physical cognitive,excessive fear or anxiety. But what needs to be underlined is: both physical cognitive,excessive fear / anxiety does not always cause amnesia.
In plain sight, alzheimer’s and amnesia may appear the same, but if you look at it in detail, the symptoms will look different. What distinguishes it clearly, is: in Alzheimer’s, the deterioration of function cognitive or memory progresses slowly getting worse, and until now has not been cured; while on Amnesia,existing memories can be lost in a short time and very drastically, forget the past or the past before he had an accident (not gradual), can still be cured.
To avoid this disease, here are the tips:
A healthy lifestyle, for example by regularly exercising, not smoking or consuming alcohol.
Consume fresh vegetables and fruit. This is important because fresh vegetables and fruits contain antioxidants that serve to bind to free radicals. These free radicals damage the body’s cells.
Maintaining mental fitness or brain exercises. The way to maintain mental fitness is to stay actively reading and enrich yourself with a variety of knowledge.
4. If necessary to meditate
5. Consumption of nutrients specific to the brain.
Also Read: The 10 Best Foods for the Brain
Treatment Alzheimer’s disease
Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease can be done through two approaches: with drugs or without the use of drugs. The only drugs that can be used are drugs that contain acetylcholinestrase (AchE) inhibitors such as: tacrine, donepezil HCL, rivastigmine, and galantamine. Drugs currently used in the medical world are donepezil, rivastagmine and galantamine. These drugs seek to improve brain neurotransmitter levels and improve thinking function and behavioral control. But The use of these drugs should refer to the recommendations made by a doctor or psychiatrist. Because the use of these drugs is determined by the dose, and the time of administration, and has side effects.
Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease without the use of drugs, the goal of this approach is to regulate the behavior and cognitive symptoms of patients. The secondary purpose of this approach is to reduce the burden on caregivers (caregivers or caregivers, usually from the patient’s family). This treatment is especially beneficial when treatment cannot be done because the patient is unable to tolerate the side effects of treatment or does not approve or follow treatment instructions, or denies treatment. This approach is done using therapies, such as: behavioral management techniques, the pleasant event schedule (PES), music therapy,environmental strategy / modification, animal assisted therapy, morning bright light therapy, ECT. Through this approach, people with Alzheimer’s become more familiar, and better prepared to deal with the disease, and more able tomanage themselves.