Colon Cancer: Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

colon Cancer: Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Cancer is a malignant disease that arises when the body’s cells hold mutations into cancer cells that then grow rapidly and no longer pay attention to their duties as normal cells. Cancer is a normal division and growth of cells that cannot be controlled so that it quickly spreads, which occurs from cell changes that break away from normal regulatory mechanisms.

These cells will damage the body’s tissues thereby interfering with the functioning of the affected organs of the body. Before we read more about the Causes and Symptoms of Colon Cancer Disease, below will we start with the Definition of Colon Cancer Disease, What is Colon Cancer Disease?


The colon is part of the digestive system where discarded material (garbage) is stored. The rectum is the tip of the colon near the anus. Together, they form a long, muscular pipe called a colon. Tumors of the colon and rectum are growths that come from the deep wall of the colon.

Colon cancer (large rectum) or often called colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in colon/bowel or rectal tissue. To be able to better understand about this cancer, let’s study the Causes and Symptoms of Colon Cancer.

Causes of Colon Cancer

The cause of colon cancer to date is not yet known for certain. However, there are several risk factors that increase the onsling of colon cancer, including:

  • Age: older people (over the age of 50) are more at risk of developing cancer
  • Minimal diet of vegetables and fruits
  • Obesity or diabetics
  • Smoking and/or alcoholics
  • History of bowel polyps or colon disease: people who often experience bowel polyps, ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, greater risk for colorectal cancer
  • History of colon cancer in the family: If you have a close family (parent or sibling) who has this cancer, your risk may increase

Colon Cancer Symptoms

  • Bleeding in the colon characterized by the absence of blood in the faeces during bowel movements
  • Changes in colon patterns such as being hard, mushy or small feces
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason
  • Pain in the abdomen or back
  • The stomach still feels full even though it has defecated
  • Sometimes there are some common symptoms such as constipation, pain or bloating in the stomach

Early detection can be done by conducting a fecal examination to look for faint blood, performing a colonoscopy or performing a faeces test for DNA testing (this examination is more sensitive). Generally these cancers move slowly and quietly, it takes about 15-20 years to develop. it is very important for us to detect it early, so that we know if it is one of the Causes and Symptoms of Colon Cancer.

Prevention of Bowel Cancer

Prevention of Bowel Cancer
Preventing Colon Cancer

Preventing is much better than treating. It also applies to bowel cancer. In order not to be touched by this deadly disease, make prevention efforts:

  • Avoid foods high in fat, protein, calories, and red meat. Do not forget the consumption of calcium and folic acid. After undergoing polyspecttomy adenoma is recommended administration of calcium supplements.
  • Vitamin E and D supplementation are also recommended.
  • Eat fruit and vegetables daily.
  • Maintain body mass index between 18.5 – 25.0 kg/m2 throughout life.
  • Do physical activity, such as a quick walk of at least 30 minutes a day.
  • Avoid smoking habits. Immediately perform colonoscopy and polyspecttomy in patients who are found to have polyps.
  • Perform early detection with a faint blood test from the age of 40.

Risk Factors

  • Age. As you get older, the risk of developing bowel cancer increases. Colon cancer is more common in people over the age of 50, but it can also occur at a younger age.
  • Race and tribe. African Americans are more at risk of developing colon cancer than other races, though no clear answer has been found as to why this is the case. Jew Ashkenazi (of European Jews descent) also has a high risk for colon development. Several genetic mutations were found in Ashkenazi jews, which is the greatest symptom of increased risk.
  • Family History. If you have a family history of cancer, you may have a greater risk of developing cancer as well.
  • Medical history. Polyps can be one of the risk factors for cancer. Polyps are a mass growth in the colon. As many as 70-90% of colon cancer cases come from polyps, and lifting (surgery) polyps lowers the risk of cancer. But the removal of polyps does not mean we are already free of cancer because these polyps can grow back. The best way to solve this problem is to regularly perform colon examinations. Another possibility is inflammatory colon disease, a condition that can cause the colon to become inflammatory.
  • Genetic. There are two types of genes most commonly associated with an increased risk of cancer, namely Familial Adenomatous (FAP) and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC). About 5% of bowel cancer cases are caused by this gene. Another syndrome is Peutz-Jeghers, but it is smaller in the number of colon cancers.
  • Other risk factors. There are several other risk factors that trigger bowel cancer such as smoking, alcohol, physical activity levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes.

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