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Infertility can be interpreted as the inability to conceive after regular condomless sex (Infertility). Infertility refers to a person’s biological inability to contribute to conception (conception), or if a woman is unable to conceive for a long period of time.
In various countries infertility means if a married couple fails to get pregnant after 12 months of regular intercourse without the use of contraceptives.
Research shows that more than half of cases of infertility are conditions that women experience, while the rest are caused by one sperm disorder and other unknown factors. According to TheMayo Clinic,United States:
- About 20% of infertility cases are caused in humans.
- Ranging from 40% to 50% of infertility cases are caused by women.
- About 30% to 40% of infertility cases are caused by both partners (male and female).
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According to the Medilexicon medical dictionary, infertility is “Loss of ability or indifference, either by male or female, cannot be changed as infertility.”
According to the U.S. Department of Health, about 10% to 15% of couples in the United States are infertile – meaning they are not also pregnant after at least a year of regular unless condom sex.
Many cases of infertility are treatable. Infertility can be due to a single cause in one partner or it can also be the result of a combination of several factors.
Possibility to get pregnant within a year
In Europe, North America and much of the world, about 85% of married couples will become pregnant within a year if they have unciless and regular sex. While in the UK the average percentage is as follows (National Health Service):
- 20% will get pregnant within a month
- 70% will be pregnant within six months
- 85% will be pregnant within 12 months
- 90% will be pregnant within 18 months
- 95% will be pregnant within 24 months
Therefore, doctors in the UK typically do not diagnose a partner with infertility until 24 months have passed after regular condomless sexual intercourse. Most people will visit a GP only if there is no pregnancy within 12 months of trying.
According to the UK’s National Health Service,couples who have been trying to conceive for more than three years have a 25% maximum chance of getting pregnant over the next 12 months if they continue to try.
Causes of Infertility In Women
1. Damaged / Clogged Fallopian Tubes
Damage to the fallopian tubes is caused by salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes). In addition to causing women difficulty getting pregnant, salpingitis can also be a cause of pregnancy outside the womb (ectopic birth). PMS (sexually transmitted disease) chlamydia can clog the fallopian tubes making it difficult to exit the ovum. Approximately 70% of blockages in the fallopian tubes are caused by this chlamydia infection.
The sense of endometriosis is the occurrence of abnormal growth of implanted tissue outside the uterurs, which normally only grows in the uterus. Endometriosis can also hinder the process of conception and attachment of embryos in the uterine wall.
3. Presence of Hormonal Abnormalities
Turtle hormone lutein and follicle stimulating hormone can cause the egg can not be released thus inhibiting the occurrence of ovulation. Hypothalamic gland disorder – pituitary also causes hormonal anomalies that pass through ovulation.
4. Pituitary Tumor
This usually benign tumor is capable of damaging hormone release cells in the pituitary gland, causing the menstrual cycle in women to stop or decreased sperm production in men.
5. Excess Prolactin (Hyperprolactinemia)
Prolactin is a hormone that serves to stimulate the production of breast milk. Excess prolactin hormone can cause impaired ovulation. If a woman secretes a lot of breast milk even though she is not breastfeeding, she is likely suffering from hyperprolactinemia.
6. PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)
The syndrome is often characterized by numerous ovarian cysts and excessive production of extrogen hormones, especially testosterone. As a result, the ovum is difficult to ripen and gets stuck in the follicle so that women with PCOS often do not ovulate.
7. Premature Menopause
Premature menopause can occur when a woman stops menstruating and her ovarian follicles shrink before she enters the age of 40. These abnormalities are often triggered by radiotherapy, chemotherapy, smoking, and immunity disorders.
8. Uterine Fibroids
Uterine Fibroids It is a benign tumor that grows on the uterine wall, often found in women aged 40-30 years. These tumors can cause infertility if they block the fallopian tubes and the attachment of fertilized eggs in the uterine wall.
9. Adesi (Adeshion)
Adhesion or adesi is a group of skar tissues that are interconnected so that it unites the two surfaces of organs that should be separated from each other. Adesi involving fallopian tubes due to infection, or surgery can be a barrier to the proper functioning of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
10. Thyroid Gland Abnormalities
This abnormality of the tidoid gland can lead to an excess or even a deficiency of thyroid hormones that disrupt the menstrual cycle.
11. Congenital Anatomical Abnormalities
Congenital abnormalities in the reproductive organs can also be the cause of infertility. Mullerian Agenesis is characterized by the undevelopment of the vagina or uterus. Women with this disorder can still have children through ivf using another woman’s uterus.
Smoking as it is known can harm the ovaries and reduce the number and quality of eggs. Research shows smoker women tend to go through menopause early.
Neurotransmitters work in the hypothalamus gland to control reproductive hormones as well as stress. Excessively high levels of stress hormones will interfere with the reproductive system.
14. Too Skinny or Too Fat
Women who are overweight / overweight, is one of the causes of infertility of various types. The only thing is PCOS (Policystic ovarian sydrome) often occurs in overweight women. While women who are too thin, such as marathon athletes or anorexia sufferers, may lose their reproductive function.
15. Environmental Factors
Herbicide pollution, pesticides, industrial waste and other harmful pollution can have a direct effect on fertility. Phtalate, a chemical to soften plastics, is thought to interfere with the functioning of hormones in the body.
Then what are the risk factors for Infertility?
In medicine, risk factors are things that can improve the cause of a particular condition, such as disease and symptoms of the disease. For example, people who are overweight (obese) are more prone to developing type 2 diabetes attacks compared to people of normal weight. Therefore, obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
Infertility Risk Factors
Here are some risk factors that can cause infertility in married couples:
Age – a woman’s fertility begins to decline after the age of about 32 years and continues. Meanwhile, a man in his 50s is usually less fertile than a man in his 20s (male fertility decreases after the age of 40).
Smoking – smoking can significantly increase the risk of infertility, both in men and women. Smoking can also damage the effects of fertility treatment. Even when a woman is pregnant ,if smoking, they have a greater risk of having a miscarriage.
Alcohol consumption – a woman’s pregnancy is seriously affected by the large amount of alcohol consumption. Alcohol addiction can also decrease fertility and sperm count in men. Although moderate alcohol consumption has not shown lower fertility in most men, it is estimated that lower fertility in men is due to low sperm count.
Obesity (overweight) – In developed countries, overweight/obesity and a ‘sedentary’ lifestyle are found to be the main causes of female infertility. While a man with more weight has a risk of experiencing abnormal sperm production.
Eating disorders – Women who are overweight are often caused by disorders of irregular diets that have a direct effect on fertility.
Vegetarian – If you are a ‘pure’ vegetarian, you should ensure adequate intake of iron, folic acid, zinc and vitamin B-12. If that is not the case, your fertility may be affected.
Excess Exercise – a woman who does ‘seduous’ exercise for more than seven hours each week can experience ovulation problems.
Lack of Exercise – Sedentary lifestyle (lack in physical activity) is sometimes directly associated with low fertility in both men and women.
Sexually transmitted infections(STIs)– Sexually transmitted diseases can damage the fallopian tubes and make the man’s testicles inflammatory. A number of other STIs also cause infertility.
Chemicals – A number of pesticides, herbicides, metals (tin) and artificial solvents have been linked to fertility problems in both men and women.
Also Read: 9 Tips To Get Pregnant Soon
Stress – studies show that ovulation in women and sperm production in men can be affected by mental distress (stress). If at least one partner experiences stress, it will have an impact on the lack of frequency of sexual intercourse of the partner, so the chance of conception is also very low.