After claiming two victims in India, the Nipah Virus has become a widely discussed issue in the global healthcare community. As a result, the health department in the Kerala region of India has promptly conducted tests to prevent the spread of the virus.
The Nipah Virus, or NiV, is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by the Henipavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. This disease can be transmitted from animals such as bats or pigs, as well as through contaminated food or human-to-human transmission. The natural carrier of this virus is fruit bats.
In infected individuals, the virus can lead to a range of illnesses, from asymptomatic or subclinical infections to severe respiratory infections and fatal encephalitis. The Nipah Virus is a significant concern in the field of healthcare because it can result in serious infections and death. It also infects numerous animals, causing losses for farmers, although outbreaks in Indonesia have been relatively limited.
While not a newly discovered virus, the Nipah Virus was first identified in 1998-1999 following an outbreak on pig farms in the Nipah River region of Malaysia. The virus then spread to Singapore, resulting in 276 confirmed cases and 106 deaths.
The global spread of the Nipah Virus has now resulted in approximately 700 human cases, including 407 deaths, across five countries: Malaysia, Singapore, India, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. Bangladesh holds the highest number of cases and deaths.
Although no cases of the Nipah Virus in humans have been reported in Indonesia, according to the WHO, several countries, including Indonesia, are at risk of transmission because similar viruses have been found in the natural reservoir of the Nipah Virus, which is fruit bats and other bat species.