What is a Universal Testing Machine? The Universal Testing Machine “UTM” is a tool used to test the tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. This equipment falls under the category of destructive testing, as it involves damaging the material to reveal its characteristics. It is commonly used in various industries such as shipbuilding, aviation, construction, and others.
Table of Contents
The Universal Testing Machine (UTM) is often referred to as a Universal Tester, Materials Testing Machine, or Materials Test Frame. It conforms to industry standards and has proven its ability to perform numerous tests and compression tests on materials, components, and structures.
UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM) TESTING METHODS
There are two testing methods employed by the Universal Testing Machine (UTM): the tensile testing method and the compression testing method. This machine is used to test solid materials ranging from rubber, plastic, textiles, paper, wood, food materials, metals, cables, and various other materials. The parameters observed through testing using this machine include material strength, elastic modulus, ultimate strength, maximum strength, and strain at the maximum point.
TYPES OF UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM) TESTING
A. TENSILE TEST
The tensile test involves pulling a plastic material using the UTM. This test is performed by clamping the material at each end with the UTM and then applying vertical force until the material breaks or fractures.
B. COMPRESSION TEST
Compression testing, also known as the compression test, uses a component called Compression Platens. The test is carried out based on the size of the material being used. Unlike the tensile test, in the compression test, the UTM moves downward, applying vertical pressure.
C. SEAL STRENGTH TEST
Seal Strength Test is a form of tensile testing within the UTM. It is used to measure the strength of seals found on objects, particularly packages or packaging materials. The test involves subjecting a package to a specific temperature using a heat sealer.
D. BOND STRENGTH TEST
This type of test is performed to assess the bonding strength within an object. The test results are measured as an average force. The results are then analyzed in the form of a graph. If the graph shows uniform force, the bond is deemed to be correctly placed. Conversely, if the graph shows uneven force, it indicates an incorrect bond.
E. GLIDING FORCE TEST
The Gliding Force Test examines the smoothness of two surfaces. This test is conducted using both tensile and compression methods, depending on the material being tested.
OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM)
The working principle of the Universal Testing Machine (UTM) is straightforward. The load applied can be adjusted on the machine’s monitor, typically based on the type and thickness of the material to be tested. For tensile and Nick Break tests, the applied load becomes the tensile force, while for Bending Tests, the load becomes compressive.
The material to be tested is placed within the UTM. For tensile and Nick Break tests, the machine waits for the material to break, while for bending tests, it waits until the material forms a 180-degree radius. If the material fractures before reaching 10 degrees, the bending test is halted and considered unsuccessful.
HOW TO USE UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM)
Using the Universal Testing Machine (UTM) is relatively straightforward. First, ensure that the UTM is in a usable condition. Then, select the material to be tested, ensuring it is a hard or solid material for accurate results. Next, choose the testing method, whether tensile or compression. Place the material and tighten it. Finally, run the machine to perform the test.
Some considerations when performing tensile or compression tests using the Universal Testing Machine (UTM) include:
- Avoid using soft materials, as they may yield inaccurate results.
- The material must be dry; testing wet materials will render the results invalid.
- Do not exceed the machine’s load capacity, as it could damage the machine.
In performing tests using the Universal Testing Machine (UTM), two critical aspects should be considered:
- Choosing the appropriate testing frame: The testing frame is a vital component of the UTM setup, determining the basic capacity. Frame Test cannot be upgraded, so it must be chosen carefully.
- Selecting the right controller: The UTM has evolved significantly in its system. Analog…
TYPES OF UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM)
UTM comes in various variations due to multiple manufacturers producing this equipment. Manufacturers adhere to established standards for tensile and compression testing during production. Here are some variations of Universal Testing Machine:
1. MEGA 1500
The Mega 1500 is a Labthink product with a standard force of 500 N and optional forces of 50 N, 100 N, 250 N, 1 kN. This product has a test speed of 1 – 550 mm/minute.
2. I-SRENTEK 1510
Similar to the Mega 1500, the i-Srentek 1510 is also a Labthink product with a standard force of 500 N and optional forces of 50 N, 100 N, 250 N, 1, 2, 5, 10 kN.
3. WDW 200E / 300 E
The WDW 200E / 300 E is a type of Universal Testing Machine using a digital control measurement system, providing a maximum testing force of 200/300 kN.
4. WAW 1000A
The WAW 1000A is a UTM product controlled by a hydraulic servo system, primarily used for tension, compression, bending tests, etc., on metallic materials.
Some individuals might not be familiar with the appearance of a UTM. Therefore, this overview can be helpful for readers who want to learn about the Universal Testing Machine (UTM).